A MEMORIAL DAY SALUTE

A Memorial Day salute to those that served–and to those that currently serve in the Armed Forces of the United States of America.
We did our duty when called upon.

In my own experience–it wasn’t always without complaint. Truth shouldn’t be embellished, hidden, or ignored. War is playing for keeps. There are lasting scars–not all of them visible.

In humble remembrance, these mementos are of veteran family members from WWII and the Vietnam era.

dad's cousin
Dad’s cousin, MIA after the Indianapolis was torpedoed by a Japanese submarine. The Indianapolis delivered components for the atomic bombs that struck Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

dad wwii
My Dad with his “Deuce and a half” WWII truck on maneuvers in the California desert. If you look closely, there’s a lizard on the truck’s fender. Perhaps Dad adopted a new mascot?  Dad served overseas in China, India, and Burma.

uncle wwii
My Uncle Harvey US Navy WWII veteran, served in the Pacific Theater. My mother and Uncle Harvey had a close relationship, since they were the youngest members of the family.

my usaf picture
A picture of yours truly in my USAF uniform. I served during the Vietnam era.  I didn’t do anything special–served in the 322 CSG, Rhein Main AB, Germany.  To those that didn’t get a proper welcome–Welcome Back!

 

IN GOOD TIMES AND BAD TIMES (THEIR SONG)

wwii dancesThat’s all servicemen and women wanted–respite from harsh realities of war.  Reminders of home came in different forms–movies, USO shows, books, and music.  Music, sweet big-band music, assured that all was well.  There was still a place called home and someday this madness would end.

Nino Temple and April Stevens did a sixties cover version of “Deep Purple.”  Like, just about every aspiring guitar player, I aspired to master Deep Purple’s “Smoke on the Water.”  Coincidentally, the rock group adopted “Deep Purple” as their name.  My mother didn’t particularly like top-forty rock music–mostly ignored it.  Dad simply dismissed all rock music as “noise.”

It wasn’t cool for rebellious teenagers to like their parent’s music and vice versa.  Big bands and swing music characterized the previous generation just as rock did for my generation.  Mom mentioned that “Deep Purple”–as sung by Helen Forrest to the accompaniment of the Artie Shaw Band, was one of her favorites.  Then, she sang along with the April Stevens and Nino Temple version playing on my transistor radio.  She remembered every word–I was stunned!  This would remain our little secret.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

deep purple

“Deep Purple,” by Helen Forrest album cover

Lest my nostalgic bent get the better of me–I’ll get to the point.  What songs brought back memories for my parents?  Was “Deep Purple” their song?  Had my mother and father slow danced to the big band version of this song?  In my mind’s eye, I could picture the two of them, as they danced–gazed into each other’s eyes.  Promised their love would last forever.

Popular music of the forties wasn’t always about sweetness and romance.  Several popular tunes had darker meanings.  For example: “Flat Foot Floogie” and “Minnie the Moocher” were about unsavory characters.  The original title “Flat Foot Floozy” was changed to something deemed more appropriate.  There were several wonderful novelty songs, among them, “Three Little Fishes,” “Cement Mixer,” “Swinging on a Star.” The latter, my mother sang to me as a child.

My mother sang and played piano.  At family singalongs voice quality was secondary to enthusiastic participation.  It’s funny how music brings back memories–of people, places, events, moods–even smells.  “That’s What Friends Are For,” was written by Burt Bacharach and Carole Bayer Sager, for the Disney movie “Fox and Hound.”  The song is perhaps best remembered in a benefit performance by Dionne Warwick, Elton John, Gladys Knight, and Stevie Wonder during the mid-eighties.

–Keep smiling, keep shining
Knowing you can always
Count on me
For sure
That’s what friends are for
For good times and bad times
I’ll be on your side forever more
That’s what friends are for–

“For good times and bad times–I’ll be on your side forever more.”  Those words, described my mother’s giving spirit–she’d been a war bride, teacher, mother to four children, and a good friend.  These words comforted me, after her death in January of 1986–and applied to the greatest generation.  Through good times and bad times they pulled through.  Most importantly, they left the world a better place for having been here.

DAILY PROMPT: BOOKWORMS

“Grab the nearest book.  Open it and go to the tenth word.  Do a Google Image Search on the word.  Write what the image brings to mind.”

Photographers, artists, poets show us BOOKS.” 

“BATTLE”

battle ww2 peleliuA picture, from a dusty old book
Depicted war in the South Pacific
Some seventy years, had gone by
Since that day, when
The sun barely shone
Through smoke and debris
No birds sang, nothing was green
Only desolation and devastation
As far, as the eye could see

Two, battle weary
Marines, hunkered down
Cradled, weapons
Their, only true friends
Dared, anything to move
Somehow, through this
Apocalyptic madness
Why, were they still there
When, others had perished?
Sentimentality, wasn’t an option
Another day, among many
That never seemed to end

Ward Cleaver Didn’t Live Here

Clyde & his boys 1954 (2)A black and white picture depicted a visit to Grandfather’s farm.  The year, was 1954, or possibly earlier–earlier, because my younger brother, Jerry (on the left), appeared to be very young.  He was born in 1951, and I dare say, he couldn’t have been older than two.  My sister, wasn’t born until 1954.  I’m posed in the middle, appropriately, since I was the middle child.  My precocious big brother, George, went through a patriotic phase.  In pictures, he either saluted military style, or held his hand over his heart.  I was impatient, couldn’t stand still–wanted the picture-taking nonsense to cease.

Dad was a WWII veteran, a member of the “greatest generation.”  …Toughened by hardships of the great depression.  He was a man of principle with firm religious convictions–a born-again Christian.  We attended church regularly mid-week and on Sundays.  Dad was a strict disciplinarian based upon, “Spare the rod, spoil the child.”  The “rod of correction” was applied liberally to my backside during childhood.  My father’s conservative republican political leanings contrasted with my grandfather’s being a staunch democrat.

In the early fifties, dad felt called to the ministry.  We moved first, to Greenville, Illinois and then to Canton, Ohio.  Father took classes at nearby Greenville College in preparation for work at the “Volunteers of America” in Ohio.  Later, we moved back to Illinois where Dad resumed farming with my Grandfather.  There were several overnight trips taken, back to Illinois from Ohio, in our blue, ’54 Ford four-door sedan.  Dad drove the entire trip, my baby sister, Marsha slept in mother’s arms in the front seat; I slept on the floor behind the front seat; my brother George slept on the back seat; Jerry slept on the rear window ledge.  A service station attendant got a big kick out of this.  This, I realize, would be frowned upon today.

Clyde Planting corn in field just north of Hicks House.

Father seemed happiest when farming.  There was always an ever-present smile of satisfaction across his face.  During the years, he had several second jobs to make ends meet.  Mom resumed her teaching career shortly after we moved back to Illinois.  Dad, like others of his generation, was self-sufficient.  Mom, wasn’t always pleased with his utilitarian home repairs–form always followed function.  Our first decent place of residence, wasn’t realized, until we moved into Grandfather’s farmhouse.  It had indoor plumbing–unlike our previous three places of residence.  This seemed to especially please my mother.

Clyde & Dorothy Adam Family 1955

In this 1955 family portrait, my sister Marsha was just a toddler.  I’m on the front row, left, Jerry is to the far right, George is on the back row, center.  Our family life wasn’t anything like TV sitcom portrayals.  Mom didn’t putter around the kitchen in a starched white apron, while Dad relaxed in the living room with his feet propped up, waiting for the evening meal.  Mom and Dad’s responsibilities weren’t nine-to-five, Monday through Friday.  During the long days of summer, Dad didn’t get in from the fields, till sometimes eight or nine.  Mom balanced duties as a teacher, farm wife, household manager, and was mother to four children.  Everybody pitched in to help.  George filled in as substitute chef when mom attended night classes.  I doubt if the “Brady Bunch” could have kept up.  It was no wonder my parents were always tired.

On a cold January night in 1986, my phone rang in the early morning hours.  It was Dad, his voice quivered with emotion–as he searched for meaning.  Our mother, his lifetime companion, had been suddenly taken away.  The sense of loss overwhelmed, like a tidal wave.  Mom was a stabilizing force that held the family together.  Mom balanced dad’s rigidity–she was always the mediator.  Dad carried on as family patriarch, but never again found the same love and companionship.

My parents hadn’t always agreed on family issues.  Decisions made, whether popular or not, were always made in our best interest.  One fatherly admonition, “If I broke the law and landed in jail, I could stay there.”  The neighbors were alerted to watch for indiscretions behind the wheel–or anywhere else.  I was afraid of the consequences, should I get caught.  In the end, I knew that I was loved.  The years passed too quickly.  Dad contracted a terminal illness and passed away at home on October 27, 1995.  I’d, beforehand, had the privilege of telling him how much he meant to me.  His life was an example of strong Christian faith–as was my mother’s.

One of my favorite memories, is of him driving the family to church, sporting a gray fedora hat.  He never drove over fifty.  I guess he figured that God knew his intentions and would wait.  He was a strict disciplinarian, but had a softer side, observed on quiet mornings, when no one was around.  There he sat, gently stroking the fur of one of our many pet cats and kittens.  He stayed true to his beliefs, through thick and thin, right through to the end.

Perhaps Dad had been too strict–didn’t show enough affection?  Perhaps, this, or perhaps that, should have been different?  Heaven’s the only final authority that matters.  I wish he were still here, in good health, telling corny jokes and making horrible puns.  I’ve passed on the tradition.  His spirit lives on, within me–something reminds me of him everyday.

DAD’S WWII LETTERS: Chapter 24, Home’s Where the Heart Is, Post War Reflections

  • Editor’s note:  Cynical GI’s claimed “C.B.I.” [China-India-Burma] stood for “Confusion Beyond Imagination.”  My father headed home, further indignities didn’t matter.  The army became a blurred memory–the incredibly inedible rations, long duty hours, KP and guard duty.  Dad’s thoughts about his letters, “I know my letters make dull reading other than knowing that I’m alive and still kicking.”  He probably wouldn’t want his letters published.  These stacks of old letters represented thousands of “Pismo Petes,” “Harry Grants,” others with families that worried, prayed for good news–members of the “greatest generation.”

History of 115th Ordnance (Medium Maintenance) Company

History of Dad's Company 1

  • Questions:  I wondered if Dad [like myself] had recurring dreams of being back in the military?  Was the story about my father taking a Jeep from the motor pool to a picture show, and it being stolen, true?  There was no corroborating evidence.  Had he hitchhiked and taken a wild eighty mile per hour ride, from Chicago, in a Chrysler Airflow down Route 66?  That could have been true, since Dad was inducted at Ft. Sheridan, near Chicago.

Honorable discharge record 1945Dad’s discharge record

  • Questions answered:  The return trip took twenty-eight days compared to forty-one days for the trip over.  Dad arrived stateside June 22, 1945.  He was officially discharged at Ft. Custer, Michigan [near Battle Creek] on Oct. 1, 1945.  More questions–medical records showed Yellow Fever contracted in March 5, 1942–a year before overseas deployment?  Mom was five-foot two.  Dad was five-foot three?  …Records center screwups?  What happened to Dad’s campaign ribbons?  Fred Bratton, Dad’s army buddy, made several visits during my childhood.  When my mother passed away in 1986, Dad sought the company of his old army buddy.

Clyde at Chesterfield after war 1945Dad, at home, summer 1945

Clyde & Dorothy Adam at Chesterfield in 1945 after war.Mom & Dad at ChesterfieldFred Bratton & Clyde Adam stateside in 1945Dad and Fred Bratton stateside

  • Favorite pictures:  The pictures reprised below, captured the essence of my father.  The picture of Dad with an adopted dog mascot.  My father looked contented in the picture with his truck.  He was a stickler for proper maintenance of vehicles and machinery.  He wouldn’t accept excuses or shortcuts.

Clyde & dog in India

Clyde near his truck.

  • Similarities & Contrasts:  I had more in common with my father than I realized.  My opinions of military life were the same.  I shared his feelings of being left behind, while the world at home went on.  We served just about the same amount of time overseas.  That’s where the similarity ended.  I can never hope to understand what it was like–living in tents and bamboo huts in wartime Burma and India.
  • Man of his word:  My father was a man of his word in all aspects of life.  I can now, understand more fully, Dad’s refusal to join family camping outings–not even for picnics.  His response, “I camped more than I cared to in the Army.”  
  • Mementos: tucked away in the pages of his diary.  A souvenir inscribed Chinese 10 Yuan bank-note [mentioned in Chapter 22].  Some Japanese occupation paper currency.  A newspaper clipping announced his marriage.  The names and addresses listed below.

Claude A. Kinzel
Rt. #3
Long Prairie, Minn.

Harry Grant
825 2nd Ave. No.
9th St.
Staples, Minn.

Wm. Starr
126 Clarensdale Ave.
Youngstown, Ohio

Willard H. Wagner
167 Halstead St.
Harvey, Ill.

Kenneth Schwittan
3412 N. 10th St.
Milwaukee, Wisc.

Wedding Photo 11.14.1942From the Springfield, IL “State Journal Register

Carlinville, May 6, ’43–Mrs. Nancy Clark is announcing the marriage of her daughter, Dorothy, to Pvt. Clyde F. Adam, son of Mr. and Mrs. George Adam of Chesterfield.  The ceremony was performed Nov. 14, 1942, at Palmyra, Mo., by Rev. C. Dorris.

Mrs. Adam is a graduate of Blackburn College and for the last three years has taught Albany school near Chesterfield.  At present she is employed by Owens-Illinois glass Co. at Alton.

Private Adam was engaged in farming before entering the armed forces.  He is now serving overseas.   

Japanese Occupation Money (Front)Japanese occupation currency [front]Japanese Occupation Money (Back)Japanese currency [back]Noumea, New Caledonia visited by Clyde Adam en route to India 1943Picture of New Caledonia [port of call not mentioned in letters]

WWII Poem, clipped from “Illinois State Journal-Register” 

img018

In Remembrance:  Chesterfield, Illinois, population 300, was barely a spot on the map.  This little town with a big heart gave its finest young men and women–four, listed below, made the ultimate sacrifice.  Here’s a list of names inscribed on the veteran’s memorial in front of the Chesterfield United Church.

–John K. Flowers–Robert Jacoby–Leonard Stone–Earl J. Wheeler– 

img017From 12-1-1946 Veteran’s Memorial Dedication

“In memory and in honor of these eighty-three citizens of this community, who served the nation in the armed forces of the United States of America, the Daughters of Dorcas Sunday School Class of the United Church, solicited the willing support of the entire community for the purchase of the two white marble benches, which now and forever, shall stand on the church grounds, eternal symbols of the gratitude and high honor in which these names are held”  

  • Names mentioned in letters:  John K. Flowers, Harvey Crowder, Ansel Dowland, Wendell Dowland, Theodore Hall, Harold Huyear, Floyd Nixon, Eugene [Gene] Parker, *George Parker, Esther Parker, Armin Rigsbey, Leo M. Rigsbey, Russell Scott, Albert Wilson, Kenneth Woods
  • Afterthoughts:  The black tapestries embroidered with silver thread, a silver bracelet, souvenirs from a strange-named place called the Taj Mahal didn’t mean anything to me when I found them in Mom’s cedar chest.  They were mere curiosities to a young boy meddling where he had no business.  Now, they represent treasured memories from almost seventy years ago.
  • Memories of “greatest generation” WWII veterans will fade away–if we let them.  We all know what happened in WWII.  The enemies were defeated, the world was made safer.  It’s important to remember why.  I set out to tell the story of one soldier’s contribution to the war effort in jungles of India and Burma.  I’ve gained a new appreciation for his sacrifices made in service to our country.
  • Acknowledgements:  George F. Adam Sr., brother, for access to pictures, documents from Adam family archives.  Ray Parker, hometown friend, [son of *George Parker], for newspaper clipping with poem, veterans memorial information.
  • Other Favorite WWII Blogs:  notsofancynancy–father’s war experiences told from letters home, No. 23 Squadron–about an RAF Mosquito squadron, “Greatest generation” Life Lessons–story of an ordinary family trying to live ordinary lives during an extraordinary time frame…, Pacificparatrooper–Pacific war era information     

DAD’S WWII LETTERS: Chapter 23, Roosevelt Era Ends, V-E Day

fdr's death

April 15, 1945

I’ll answer your letter of March 25th now. Today was another Sunday with the afternoon off.

It was too bad about the death of Pres. Roosevelt. Truman has quite a job ahead of him, now. I sure hope he’s capable of doing the job.

I haven’t learned much about typing. There’s a lot of difference typing out an address and typing a whole letter. Dorothy knows how to type though, and if the necessity ever calls for it, she can do my typing.

I wouldn’t mind taking a short course on farming after I get out of the army and before I start farming. I could do that in the winter when I couldn’t do anything else. I could work and earn a little as long as I could, if I’m free during the summer and fall months.

I’m afraid that the 300 dollars I get when I’m discharged, won’t do much more than buy my clothes as I’ll have to have a complete outfit. Then, too, I’ll have to convert my insurance which will probably take some time. I think I’ll have it changed to 20 year pay and then the money would come about right for the kid’s education, if there are any.

I sure want to stay in the States when I get there, and I intend to do everything I can to get to stay.

Right around here I haven’t noticed many flowers yet. things were torn up so bad, that if there were any tame flowers, they wouldn’t be here now. Wild orchids grow in some regions around here.

I’m glad you got the birthday present in time since I sent money to Dorothy to have her get you something and it just got there a few days ahead of time. Sixty isn’t so old nowadays if a person takes care of himself.

By the time you get this letter, I think the war in Germany will be over. That should make quite a difference in everything. Maybe by the time I get home, things will be sort of loosened up back there.

Well, that’s about all for this time, I guess. Everything is fine over here, except the heat.

April 21, 1945

I received your letter of the 2nd a day or two ago, but I waited until my regular time to write.

Tonight is the kind of night when a person is glad he has a roof over his head. Otherwise he’d get rather wet.

I wonder if you are still having rains? If not, I imagine everybody is busy with gardens and getting ready for corn. It’s hard for me to realize that another planting time has rolled around. I sure hope that by next year this time I’m home for corn planting or nearby.

I guess I’ll get to see the crop this year anyway, even though I won’t get to see it put in. Maybe I’ll be there in time to run a cultivator a time or two. I want to eat some of that fried chicken. If you have any strawberries, put a few away in the locker so I can get a taste of them.

I’m sorry to hear about Mr. Sawtell. He was getting pretty well along in years, I guess. There have sure been a lot of deaths around Chesterfield since I’ve been overseas.tree grows in bklynI’m glad that you two get out once in a while and see a show. I’d think you could go a little more often as you haven’t so many responsibilities now. I saw “Meet Me in St. Louis” over here a while back. It was a fairly good show. I want you to go see the show, “A Tree Grows in Brooklyn,” because it’s very good. I read the book around Christmas and then saw the show about a month ago.

Uncle George and Aunt Minnie are pretty spry yet, I guess, if they still go to the show. I guess the “kids” take them. I don’t imagine that Greene or the other fellow living on the Gahr place, cares much about them carrying off stuff either, after giving up possession. It wold take a lot of nerve, looks to me like, for anyone to try to do that.

meet me in stl

If Uncle Val [Gahr] and Dowland haven’t any money now to pay for feed, they never will. They should have it now, if ever.

I’ll bet things are pretty around there now.

Bill Dams didn’t stay overseas very long, it seems like, but I guess he saw plenty of action while he was there.

I’ll close for this time. Hope you are well.

April 29, 1945

I have your letters of the 8th and 15th to answer tonight as they both came since I wrote you last.

I’ll keep writing you letters as long as I can, but I don’t think there’s any need for you to write me anymore as I more than likely will no longer be at this address when you get this letter. Now, don’t get excited about my coming home, as I don’t think I’ll be there before the last of June or the first part of July.

There sure have been lots of rumors coming over the air today, but so far most of them have proved to not have any foundation. The first thing this morning, we heard that Germany had surrendered and later found that they hadn’t, but had only asked for it. I don’t suppose it’ll be long, though, before they’ll actually be out of the picture, whether they ask for peace or not. There isn’t much left of Germany anymore that the Allies haven’t run over.

I was out to see Russell Scott this afternoon. I told that it would likely be the last time I’d see him for a while.

I’m surprised that you didn’t butcher any pork this year. It’s been a long time since you’ve never butchered a hog during the winter, hasn’t it?

There sure have been a lot of deaths around Chesterfield lately. I sure was surprised to hear of the death of Florence Reesor, as she was so young. Gertrude is going to be tied down now with those three kids.

So Clarence Dowland and Hazel finally got married. They sure waited a long time.

I hardly recognized Harold Huyear in the picture you sent me. I suppose after four years, one forgets faces that he wasn’t too familiar with. There’ll probably be a lot of people around home that I won’t know. Especially the kids that have grown up will be strangers.

I’m over the cold and sore throat OK now. I’m going to be awfully bad off if they can keep me from coming home.

It looks like Uncle Pete is having his share of tough luck now. He’s going to have a tough time of it this summer with no man if he’s still trying to farm the Wooley place.

May 13, 1945

Here it is another Mother’s Day in India. I believe it makes about the third one over here.

I’m sure sweating it out here as the weather is sure hot. I’m waiting for (censored).

I should be back in the States by sometime in (July). It’ll probably be hot back there too by then.

Well, now that the war in Europe is over, things should loosen up a bit back there in the States.

VE DayHeadlines announced V-E Day

Some of the luckier ones will get discharged, bit I guess I’ll be stuck for the duration. If I’d been in a combat outfit, I’d probably be getting out of the army by now.

I hope you have plenty of fryers as I’m going to want plenty of fried chicken.

I’m going to be plenty hungry as it’s too hot to eat here and I’ll lose weight.

I hope to be seeing you before too long.

Editor’s note:  That was Dad’s last overseas letter.  Exact details of his departure weren’t available.  Would things go according to plan?  After being away from home for so long, a little more inconvenience wouldn’t be a big deal.  Return transportation took time–probably less time than the trip over.  There’s more to come in the concluding chapter.

DAD’S WWII LETTERS: Chapter 21, Spring, Friends From Home

March 4, 1945

Here it is March and usually back there this time of the year a person on the farm thinks of farm work.  I wonder if your winter weather has let up?  This is the month usually for lots of wind.  Over here the days are getting where a person doesn’t need any blankets.  The flowers are beginning to bloom.  The vegetation seems to be coming out of its winter dormant stage.  Even though it’s green all winter, the vegetation doesn’t grow much, although the native to grow vegetables, etc.

This is my morning off and I had to work this afternoon.  Things were kind of slow though, and there wasn’t so much to do.  Last Sunday afternoon, Russell Scott came over and we had quite a visit talking over our experience in the army and of old times.  He lacks almost a year having been overseas as long as I.  He is a medic attached to another outfit–in other words he’s on D. S.

I received your letter of Feb 12th the first of the week shortly after your letter of the week before.

You’re sure having quite a time moving chicken houses and fences for your chickens.  I can’t see why you don’t slow on the chicken raising.  I think you’ve raised your share and it’s about time you took things easier.Dad’ll probably have about all he’ll want to do to keep the place going.

Forty dollars for 30 hens is a fairly good price.  I can remember when an old hen wouldn’t bring a dollar.

raising chickensRaising chickens

I’m surprised that Olin G. [Gahr] has lost interest in the farm.  I thought he bought a small place out there near the home place.  I understand he’s running a tavern now.  I guess a person can make money at that racket if he has the right location.  I’m a little doubtful about that now, though.

What did Gov. Green have to say about the returning veterans?  I sort of doubt though, if we can get ahead of those that have stayed behind as they’ve gotten their start during prosperity.

I would like to take a short course of schooling on modern farming methods the winter before I go into farming in the spring, if possible, and it doesn’t cut too deep into our savings.

It looks like the Government is going to make it possible for a returning veteran to borrow money at a reasonable rate of interest.  I’ll have to borrow some probably to get set up.  A person is going to have to get off to a speedy start in order to reap some of the profits before hard times come again

Dorothy and I can furnish our home pretty good, I think.  I don’t know, but I think the war will be over by the end of next year.  Of course it depends on a lot of things on how much longer I’ll have to stay in the army.

I’m doing all right with the exception of a cold right now.  I’ve put on weight during the cool season.  I don’t know how long it’ll last thought in the hot season.  Write.

March 9, 1945

Here it is already well into March.  Spring is just around the corner.  I’ll bet the farmers are beginning to think of their spring work.  the weather is changing here too in respect to heat.

Yes, in Feb, it was a little early to think of putting in an early garden.  The trees in the orchard must be getting rather few and far between, unless you’ve set out some new stock.  Is your berry patch still in existence?

I wish I could see the cattle before they’re sold, but that’s impossible this time.  Why don’t you take a picture of them and send it to me?

You seem to be doing pretty good with your hens.  They must be bringing in between two and three dollars a day.  Of course the feed has to come out of that.  A person doesn’t notice the feed so much when it comes off the farm, but if you buy it, it eats pretty heavy into the profits.

Russell Scott’s address would have helped out a lot, if I hadn’t already seen him.  I’ll have to go see him or I may not get the chance again.

There just doesn’t seem much to write about tonight and I’m rather tired, so I’ll close for this time.

I sure hope to hear something about coming home before long.

Oh yes, I got a letter from Mrs. Kallal yesterday.

March 18, 1945

I didn’t get a letter from you this week.  I had four or five from Dorothy.  From what she said, you were still having winter weather the last part of February.

I had a letter from Wendell Dowland and he’s in England.  He seemed to be seeing the sights and enjoying his stay there.

He wanted to know if I’d been there.  I guess he doesn’t know that I missed that a long ways.

I guess by now, you’re beginning to get the spring fever, as surely as the weather had gotten milder.  Here it is the latter half of March already.  You’ve sure had a tough winter this year.  According to tradition, there should be good crops this year.

spring flowersSpring flowers

I guess, unless it’s rained by now, there’s sort of a water shortage.  My buddy, Fred B. [Bratton] said that his home town (Arthur, IL) was having a water shortage and were thinking of digging a new well.

The weather is getting warmer here.  The days are getting hotter and the nights are getting warmer.  There still isn’t any rain, except a few occasional showers.  We sure managed to get where there was a long dry season this time.  It’s the longest we’ve been dry since we’ve been over here in Asia.  Some of these days though, it’ll start raining though, I guess.  I’m hoping to get out of here before much of that.

I’m figuring on getting home in 2 or 3 months.  I don’t know for sure, but I think I will.  I’ve been over here over two years now.

Things are going about the same here.  I hope they are the same back there.  Write.

March 19, 1945

I wrote a letter last night, but since I got yours today, I’ll write another tonight.

It sounds like you did pretty good on your clover crop last year.  You must have cleaned up somewhere, if you had to pay that much income tax.  Taxes are awfully high now I guess.  I guess the sale was what made your taxes so high this time.

How are you making out on the payments on the place now?  You must have it whittled down considerably by now.  You should do fairly good on the cattle this time as you had all that corn from the other place that you otherwise wold have had to buy.

One good thing , you won’t have so much to worry about this year with the other place out of the way.  You’ll still have plenty to keep yo busy, though.  Not having any hay will help out.  Although you won’t have any to feed next winter, unless you have plenty left over from last year.

You sure won’t have much corn this time.  It’ll make a lot of difference in the corn crib, too, unless you have a good yield to make up for the acreage.  Why don’t you sow a few acres of sorghum to help fill the silo?  You could get a lot more tonnage to the acre or you cold get a special corn silo.

I’m figuring on getting home sometime this summer to look around and see how things are going.  It’s about time I was getting back.  Looks like as it was 26 months ago today since I set foot on US soil.  I hope that I can get back before it gets too hot back there and here both.  It’s already getting hot here.

How’s the old car running?  Is it still in running order?  How are the tires holding up?  I suppose that you could get more if you needed them.  Dorothy got three and has another on order at the ration board.  I’ll probably be wanting to drive it some when I get my furlough.  It’s going to be a little hard to get enough gasoline, I guess, as I hear they give only a gallon a day to soldiers on leave.  That wouldn’t be enough to make a trip a day to Carlinville and back.  Maybe you’ll have some you haven’t used by then?  Ha!

Well, that’s about all for this time.  I’m feeling fine except it’s getting too hot.

March 26, 1945

Today I had KP and that’s over again for another couple of weeks I hope.  I had planned on going to see Russell Scott yesterday afternoon as I had off, but I couldn’t get the transportation.  It’s too far to hitch–hike in half a day.

I received your letter of March 4th a few days ago.  No, I guess it doesn’t make much difference whether I send my letters free or air mail.  A person might as well send them free and save the six cents.

I guess by now, you are beginning to have spring weather as it’s getting toward the last of March.  By the time you get this, the leaves should begin to come out on the trees as I believe they do in April.  I sure hope I get home in May, as that’s always a pretty month.  Everything is always green and the weather is nice.

So you are bothered with a stiff neck, too?  I get one, too, once in a while.  The climate over here gives a person colds and such.  I’ll be glad to get out of here.  A person doesn’t get the right kind of foods either.  There’s plenty of starches, but not enough variety of fresh vegetables and fruits.  We haven’t had other than fresh fruit for a long while.  I traded some cookies out of my PX ration once for four eggs and one was spoiled.  They’ve  gotten where they won’t accept anything in exchange, but cigarettes or money and they want a preposterous price.  The trouble is some guys will pay it and then they always expect it.  Consequently, I just do without.

I and another fellow visited a native village yesterday afternoon, and the natives were friendly.  They gave us a cup of tea and the head man showed us some pictures of his family.  We couldn’t converse with them as we couldn’t understand each other’s language.  He understood only a few words of English and we didn’t understand any Shan.  Their homes are made of woven bamboo and grass.  They moved out there in these places during the invasion.  They had bomb shelters to go to during the bombing.  I was all very primitive the way they live.

It makes a person appreciate the US after seeing how these people still live like they did 2,000 years ago.  As long as they don’t know any better, I guess they are contented.  In a way, they are more satisfied with life than the average American.  He sure can’t get as much out of life, though, living that way year in and year out.  There’s never any chance for betterment.  Someday, I suppose, they’ll improve as the world grows smaller and communication improves.

April 1, 1945

Here it is the fourth Easter away from home.  I wonder how the weather is back there?  It’s hot here.  I had intended on going to church this morning, but I have a sore throat and don’t feel like eating all that dust coming and going.  I can’t seem to rid myself of colds.  For a while, I wasn’t bothered with them.  My resistance must be down.  It looks like I’ll lose the weight I gained during cool weather before I get home.  I just don’t have much of an appetite during hot weather.  I was hoping that I’d get home before it got hot back there, but it’s getting to look very doubtful.

By the time you get this, the leaves should be out on the trees and the grass green.  That’s always a pretty time of year and a person feels full of ambition.  It sure isn’t like that here.

I received your letter of March 10th yesterday.  It and a V-mail from Getz was about the only mail I’ve gotten for about a week.

It seems like a lot of farmers are selling and cutting down on farming.  There should be a lot of farms to rent when the boys come home.  The first one there will probably get the best places.

When it comes to household duties, etc.  I don’t think I’ll want anything to do with it.  Anything that reminds me of what I’ve had to do in the army, I don’t want anything to do with.

Well, there just isn’t much of anything new to talk about.  The war in Europe seems to be in the final phase.

April 11, 1945

I’ve been waiting to write thinking I’d get a letter to answer, but since I didn’t. I’ll have to write anyway.  There’s nothing new.  It’s the same old thing going on day in and day out.  I know my letters make dull reading, other than knowing that I’m still alive and kicking.  There just isn’t anything over here to tell about.

Of a morning I get up, eat breakfast, go to work, eat chow at noon, go back to work at one, quit in the evening, take a shower, eat supper and then go to a show, if there’s one, or play a game or two of ping-pong, and then settle down to writing letters or reading.

One day last week, we had six girls and some male members of a USO troupe here for dinner.  That sort of broke the monotony for the day.  It was the first time since we’d been overseas, that we’d been honored by fair guests.  That night we saw the show they put on.  It was very good.  One of the fellows in the company knew one of the girls which was the reason we happened to have them here for dinner.

USO Photo taken 1943Dad’s third from right in the last row

Editor’s note:  Were any of the six entertainers recognizeable?  I couldn’t tell from the picture.

The cooks went to a lot of trouble and made up a very nice dinner with ice cream for dessert.  I think they appreciated it as I heard afterwards, that they remarked it was the best meal they’d had since they left the states.  it was the most elaborate meal we’d had since Christmas.

I suppose everyone is busy around there now getting their spring work done.  It must be getting nice back there by now.  It’s been quite a long time now since I’ve been home to enjoy the springtime.

It doesn’t look like I’ll get home before June or July and then, it could be later.  Some of the boys are already gone.  Some are just more lucky than others.

What kind of condition is the car in?  I’ll be needing some kind of transportation when I do get home.  Dorothy has been having lots of trouble with her car this winter.  After they get so old, they need so much work done on them.  Now, it’s pretty hard to get anyone to do things like that, no matter how minor they are.

Well, that’s all I can think of this time.  Write.

DAD’S WWII LETTERS: Chapter 19, Cherry Pie Dreams, Christmas Venison

Nov. 27, 1944

I received your letter of Nov. 6th. It’s getting hard to find time for my correspondence.  I usually write your letters on Sunday if I have one to answer, but this time I just couldn’t squeeze yours in as I had some laundry to do after supper.

I’ll bet the old ears of corn are really bumping into the wagons back there now, unless everyone is finished shucking corn and I doubt it very much.  I imagine that you folks have yours about finished though.

It sounds good to hear someone talk of canning fruit.  We get canned fruit, but no near as much as I could eat, especially during hot weather when I don’t eat so much of other things.  Our usual fruit diet is pineapple, fruit cocktail, peaches, pears, apple sauce or apple pie and occasionally cherry pie.  I hope you have some cherries all canned just waiting to be made into a nice, luscious pie.  I have hopes of eating some of those home cooked pies before too many more months.

cherry pieFreshly baked cherry pie

I never did learn to eat sweet potatoes.  They have them once in a while for chow.  Neither can I go for these dehydrated spuds.  This dehydrating process is a failure as far as I am concerned.  I’ll take my food prepared the old-fashioned way.  It’s possible I might get to eat some of that beef.  It’s been a long time since I’ve had any good corn-fed beef.  I sure wish that I could have seen the twins [calves].  I’ll bet they were cute.

Your hens are making a few dollars for you now.  Forty three cents a dozen sounds better that twenty.

I guess Uncle George hates giving up the place.  He’ll sure miss the farm chores although, I guess Aunt Minnie will find enough for him to run him ragged.  Next summer they’ll probably take care of all the neighbor’s gardens.

Dorothy said that she took the kids out to the Pitman sale for dinner.

I’m surprised to hear that Floyd and Nellie [Rigsbey] are moving off Bill’s place.  I’ll bet that Bill is upset.  I suppose they wanted a better way out.  Is little Bill old enough to go to school already?  Maybe they’re just getting set.  What’s Clarence Dowland doing now?  I heard that Myrtle was in the hospital.  She was always so healthy looking and full of pep.

Yes, I voted, but I don’t know whether it was legal or not, as one of the fellows from Chicago got his ballot back today.  I sent mine to the county clerk,so that may make a difference.  Anyway, I tried.

I had a surprise today in a letter from Ab [Albert] Wilson.  He was in Belgium when he wrote it.  He didn’t say anything about anything there, but just inquired about Dorothy and old times together that we naturally think of while we are far away from home.  I had written him a letter and he got it while he was still in England.  He seems to be getting around quite a bit.  In that respect he’s doing better than I.

I’m expecting some of my Christmas packages any day now, as some of the fellows have received theirs already.

It’s getting close to bedtime, which seems to roll around awfully fast.  So, I’ll have to close for this time.  I’m well and hope you are both the same.

V-Mail Christmas Card to Mom from Burma 1844Dad’s V-Mail Christmas card to Mom

Dec. 4, 1944

I received your Christmas card and your letter of Nov. 14th.  I wrote a letter to Gene Parker using the address you sent me.  I also heard from Ab Wilson last week and I answered his letter.  He was in Belgium when he wrote the letter.  He didn’t say much about anything over there, but just talked about old times and discussed some of the fellows in the service.

Editor’s note:  Ab [Albert] Wilson, was Mom’s cousin.  When we visited the Wilson farm as a child, the place seemed beset by tragedy.  His father, Bruce Wilson, passed away, leaving his mother a widow.  Ab Wilson returned from duty in Europe after the war, lived with his mother, never seemed to make a go at anything.  The house and farm slowly deteriorated, until their deaths.

I’m glad to hear that you’ve been having nice fall weather.  That should give the farmers a chance to get their corn out of the field.  I suppose when the weather does break, it’ll really be rough.  How’s Mr. Kallal getting along?  Ed mush be having a time trying to keep things going.

I’ll bet that it looks quite a bit different around the house there now, with those trees cut out.  I imagine it does make it quite a bit lighter inside the house.

You don’t need to worry, as I’m still interested in farming and intend to do some of if I ever get out of the army.  Even if I should get out during the middle of a year, I imagine that I could find plenty of work to do to keep me going until the following spring when I could rent me a farm.

I expect I’ll need plenty of help when I first start in for myself because it’s been so long ow that I’ve probably forgotten a lot of things and I can use some advice on a few things.

It looks now like I’ll get home for a furlough sometime the fore part of the year.  If things don’t change a lot between now and then, I’ll probably have to go over for another two years.  That part I hate to think of.

I haven’t heard from Dorothy yet, since she received the flowers.  I’ve been expecting to hear of it.  I received an anniversary card which was awfully sweet.  (Of course I’d think so).  From your description, it sounds like what you ordered should have been a nice bouquet.

Dorothy told me she wore glasses now.  She kept talking about that she thought she needed them and I told her by all means get them, it she needed them, because a person should take care of their eyes when they’re young.  I have to depend on my glasses all the time now.  My eyes bother me too much if I don’t wear them.

It sounds like the horses you’re working must be awfully cagey.  I’ll never forget the time the old gray and black mares of Uncle George’s ran away with me one fall when I was shucking corn.  I was lucky to not break anything.  You should have a nice lot of corn if you haul from the other place.

I hope you’ll excuse my scribbling this letter as I’m writing it rather hurriedly in order to get it done before bedtime  We had a meeting tonight and after that, I had a chance to get my haircut.  Barbers are hard to find over here at the present–anyway, the tools are the scarcest.  I certainly needed a haircut as the hair was growing down my tail bone–as you used to say.

Hope to hear from you again soon.

Dec. 10, 1944

This is a nice peaceful Sunday morning.  We get Sunday mornings off instead of afternoons.  A person can sleep now all morning if he wants to, but I’d rather get up as there is always something or other i have to do.  I was on KP yesterday and I had enough time to wash out some things.  We can hire our laundry done by some natives, but if a person has them wash everything, it doesn’t pay.  It runs into too much money.  They don’t do a very good job on white clothes and often times lose handkerchiefs and socks.  Consequently, I wash out the socks and handkerchiefs and sometimes shorts myself, and let them wash coveralls, shirts and pants that are dirtier.

I got Christmas cards from Aunt Catherine and Aunt Mary T. [Trill] this week.  Uncle John and Aunt Catherine are in Jefferson City, Mo. now as the card was postmarked such.

I received your letter of Nov. 19th this week.  So Clyde Lee is a baker now?  I had the impression that he was a supply sgt.  I don’t know why I thought that, except for what someone said in a letter.  It seems that store clerks turn out to be cooks when they get in the army.

It seems strange for some of these young guys to be getting married, but they’re getting at the age now where they do such things.  Howard, Bob Kallal, & Peachy [Edwin] Leach will be 24 their next birthday.  They are six years younger than I, and that’s hard for me to realize that age is creeping up on me.

I’m glad to hear that you almost finished with the work.  I guess it’s been a good fall to get things done.

It sounds like there are going to be lots of farms for rent next spring.  I wonder where they are going to find renters for them?  It looks to me like all the farmers now have all they can handle without taking on any more.  If i get home next spring on furlough, I wonder what chance I’ll have of working my way out of the army, and back on the farm.  It looks to me like, they are going to have to let some of the men out to take up the farming that the older men are retiring from.  If they don’t, they are going to have lots of farms laying idle pretty soon.

Editor’s note:  Farming wasn’t mechanized, it was still labor intensive.  Draft animals were widely used.  It was no wonder those on the home front felt the additional strain.

Olin Trill has quit Uncle Pete to start trapping.  Some people don’t realize that there is a war going on.  Some day though they are liable to realize it, especially if it lasts another two or three years, which it looks like it might do.  Uncle Pete is going to have his hands full, looks like.  If he should have a sick spell again, he would be up against it.

P. S. Dorothy went wild over the roses.  Thanks a million.

rose bouquet

Dec. 17, 1944

Her it is Sunday morning again and is a nice day as usual this season of the year.  I just got back from church service which we had in our mess hall.  It is the first time I’ve gone since I’ve been up here.  It’s the first time we’ve had church in our own area.  I should be able to make it every Sunday now.

I received your letter of Nov 27th in yesterday’s mail.  John Flowers is the first loss of the men in the service from right around home, I guess, as I’ve never heard of any others so far.  I’m sorry you don’t hear from me regular.  I write every week.  I’ve been hearing from you weekly now for quite a while.  I’ve gotten several letters from Dorothy this week, but for about two weeks before, I only got one letter and a card from her.

I got a Christmas card from Aunt Katherine and Uncle John.  I also got cards this week from the Hounsleys (both) Mr. & Mrs. Bruce Wilson [Ab Wilson’s parents] (they attached a note saying it was about time I was coming home), and from Aunt Mary Trill.

Dorothy sent me the picture this week of you two standing by the new brooder house.  She said that she had sent it to me several months ago, but I guess the letter got lost as I never received it.  So she sent me another, and this time I got it.  It looks like quite a fancy brooder house.  You both look about the same.  Mom, you’re not getting any thinner and you, Dad aren’t getting any fatter.  Ha!

img011

Grandma’s new brooder house

You are probably having genuine winter weather now.  I wonder if you’ll have a white Christmas this year?  Yo;u should have the cribs bulging with corn now.  Is Uncle Val buying corn for Dowland?

I’m glad that you got to go to a nice turkey dinner for Thanksgiving.  It would have been kind of lonesome if you’d had to stay at home.  I hope that I can be home next year at that time.

It seems strange to think of Ed Kallal as a family man, but I guess it happens sooner or later to everybody.

If Uncle George moves the brooder house to town, the next thing they’ll start raising chickens again.  Aunt Minnie will find some excuse to do it.

We just had mail call, but I didn’t get anything today.  I can’t be fortunate every day and get mail though.  Mail call is one of the most important events of the day over here.

I’m sure getting homesick.  I have high hopes of getting back there in the spring.  That’s the best time of year to get back there, only I believe I’d be satisfied to go anytime.

It’ll be chow time in about forty minutes and I’m sure hungry.  I could sure go some nice fried chicken with cherry pie for dessert.  A nice juicy steak would sure taste good.  I don’t know what there is for chow, but it sure smelled good while ago when I walked by the kitchen.

So long for this time.

Dec. 25, 1944

Merry Christmas!  It is almost over for another year.  I started out the day with sunrise church service.  Then I had lb reakfast and worked till noon.  I had the afternoon off.

I did pretty good today on mail.  I got four letters and five cards inclluding your card and letter.  I had cards from all three Horn girls and one from Kallals.  It made me feel full of the Christmas spirit.

We had Deer meat for dinner that some of the boys killed while out hunting.  Tonight we had canned chicken and ham which sure tasted good.

According to reports, you must be having a white Christmas back there along with some cold weather.

I’m glad to hear that you got your standing corn out of the field before bad weather started.  It sounds like you are gong to have everything full of corn by the time you are through with the shock corn.  That’s what looks good on the farm though–all the cribs full of golden corn.

Stock cattle must be awfully high now.  It’s going to be sort of a gamble unless the price holds up good in the spring.  Your hogs should bring a few dollars when you sell them.  I guess you’ve bought corn to feed them.

You say you have four horses and mules to feed.  Do you mean you have two horses and two mules or four horses and two mules?  I didn’t know you had any mules.  I hope that you can hang onto four of the best ones until I get home in the spring (which I hope to do) and find what I can do, or whether I’ll have to go overseas again.  I’m hoping that I can get out of the army and take up at home where I left off.

I’m in good health and am sweating out the remainder of my time over here.

Write often.

PS:  I don’t remember whether I told you or not that I received your package and thanks a lot.  I got one from the farm bureau since.

Jan. 1, 1945

Here it is a brand new year.  I have high expectations of this year.  I’m planning on doing something that I haven’t done in over two years and that is coming home.

I didn’t get a letter since your card and letter.  I postponed writing this a day, thinking maybe that a letter would come today, but decided I’d write anyway.  I try to get off at least one letter a week and more if I happen to recieve another letter in the meantime.

Tonight is show night, but I didn’t go tonight as I’d seen the picture already.  I see quite a few shows just to pass the time.

There is a show somewhere around almost every night.

From reports and letters from back there, you must be having real winter weather now.  I read reports of a blizzad htat swept across form the east coast and caused some damage.  It must be like one of the winters we had befor I came in the army when a big snow came awhile beore Christmas and the weather stayed cold and there was at least a month that the snow never melted off.

I’d sure like to see a winter through back home like that again, although it is awfully inconvenient to do farm chores.  It’d be nice though just to be there.

Since I’m figuring rather strong on being home in the spring or early summer, I’ve been wondering what chances I would have in getting out of the army and getting settled back on the farm.  I know that I can’t find out anything until I get back there, but I want to have the stage all set so that I can go into action immediately after I hit the States.  I won’t have any time to lose, because in some cases, the boys are being whisked right back overseas immediately after getting their furloughs.

What I want you to do is to find out if anything can be done about it.  Maybe the Farm Bureau could advise you.  As soon as I hit a camp back there, I’m gong to see someone that can advise me and see what they advise.  I can’t see coming back overseas for another two years, and then if the war is over having to figure on starting out on my own.  By that time, I would have in six years of service and I certainly don’t want to make a career of it.  It doesn’t seem right that some should have to devote all their time while others don’t devote any of it to the service.

Things are the same as ever over here.  There’s nothing new that I can tell you.  I hope that you are surviving the winter weather in good shape.

Editor’s note:  When was the war going to end?  Every soldier wanted the answer, nobody with a lick of sense was going to ask.  Soldiers didn’t call attention to themselves.  The army did what was convenient for the army.  Excessive griping would be met swiftly with extra duty, or gems of wisdom, “Don’t like it?”  “Then, go to the chaplain and have your TS, (tough s**t), card punched!”  It was better to keep quiet, hope the war ended sooner, rather than later.  Letters home were Dad’s only sounding board.

DAD’S WWII LETTERS: Chapter 16, Jungle Corn Fail, Elephant Power

Cobbled together car in India

Cobbled together car mounted on Jeep chassis.

July 12, 1944

I received your letter of the 18th of June today and the one of the 25th yesterday and it was so hot that I was too worn out to write last night.  It hasn’t been any cooler today, but I feel more like writing tonight.

I was wondering if you would bale the hay down at the other place this time.  It’s much easier to handle that way.  Which Fenton is it that has the hay baler?

I looks like these Home Bureau meetings etc. would be too much for such a busy time of the year.

If you had some of this mosquito repellent it would keep the mosquitos away for two or three hours between each application all right, but the stuff burns a person’s skin when he’s sweaty.  Why don’t you put netting around your porch or make a net just large enough for the bed.  We have nets for our beds.  It isn’t as cool that way, but keeps out the bugs.  I never remembered the mosquitos being that bad at home.

Yes, my corn is turning brown, but it isn’t due to lack of moisture.  It is reaching mature stage, I guess.  I’ve never shucked the ears as I wanted them to mature first.  I’ve felt of them and they don’t seem to have but very few pieces on them.  It was partially under water about a week and a half ago when the water got up.

it sounds like you are busy all right with hay, wheat to cut and corn to cultivate.  I imagine Finis does have a hard time keeping up with the binder as a person can cut a lot of wheat in a day with the tractor.

It sounds like you should have some cherry pies in the future with eighteen quarts of cherries canned.  When I’m home and there is another good cherry crop, I’ll have to get Dorothy on the ball to can plenty of them so I’ll have lots of cherry pie.  Ha!

Floyd Nixon is rather lucky to be stationed at Aberdeen as an instructor and can have his wife close.  Is Dale still at home helping his Dad?

I’m not too much surprised to hear that Laura Duckels has left Ed if he still boozes as much as he used to.  She put up with it for a long time.  A lot of things and people are going to be changed by the time I get home.  It’ll be almost like coming into a strange community.

Well, I have hopes of getting to see home before another six months.  At times we hear encouraging rumors which makes a person feel awfully hopeful.  *I know that I’ve had about enough of this climate.  I hope that I can stay home the next time I come, but if I can’t I’ll enjoy the time I do spend there.

*Editor’s note:  After Dad passed away in October 1995, his army buddy Fred Bratton said in an interview, that Dad suffered repeatedly from heat related ailments.

I hope you are both well.  Don’t work too hard.  If there’s more you can do, just let part of it go because there’ll always be work to do when we’re all dead and gone.

Write when you can.

July 20, 1944

I received your letter of the 2nd.

It has been a little cooler that what it has been.  I shucked out one of the nubbins form my corn crop this evening.  The climate or soil condition or both are no good over here for raising that variety of corn.  The cob of this particular ear was about 6 inches long and had about 60 grains on it with most of them at the butt.  There might have been too much rain during pollination.  What grains there are, are beg and healthy looking.  When I get some dried out, I’ll send you a few grains.  I have one ear hanging up now.  I haven’t picked the rest of it yet.  The stalks are about dried up.  I planted it if you remember about the middle of March.

I thought maybe you would combine the wheat on the other place as you wouldn’t get to use the straw anyway.  May you can bale the straw anyway and sell it.

Dorothy sort of took a liking to the house down at Uncle George’s after she saw it.  If the new owner was on the ball and fixed things up nice, it might be a good place to rent.  If I were home now, I might consider it if the new owner made me the right kind of proposition.

I don’t see what difference it makes to Uncle George what the new owner does and the place is not longer costing him anything.

Where do Grant and Martha Wilson live now?  Things are going to sure be changed around home with places changing hands and people moving around and the older ones dying off.  By the way, I just happened to remember that Ted Dowland’s lived in the Episcopal parsonage didn’t they?

I got a V-letter from Nellie R. [Rigsbey] last week and she said that she had attended the H. B. [Home Bureau] meeting at your house and had met Dorothy for the first time.  They seemed to have made favorable on each other.  So maybe Floyd and I can renew our old acquaintance.  He’s sort of got a head start as far as family is concerned.

I answered “Sgt.” Charles Sanders’ letter a short while after I got it.  He seemed to be striped happy as he ended his letter Sgt. Charles Sanders.

I hope you’ve gotten rain by now to break the dry spell.  It’s almost time you raised a bumper corn crop.  That’s one thing we get plenty of over here.

I’m not standing the heat as good as I did last year because I’m not in as good physical condition, I guess.  It hasn’t got me down yet so I guess I’ll pull through all right.

I sure hope I don’t have to go through another hot season over here.  I feel confident  that I’ll get home by the end of this year or the first of next.

I’ll close for now.  Write often.

July 25, 1944

It sounds like you are having a hot weather too.  It certainly is hot here.  I can hardly write a letter for the sweat dripping.  I have to put a blotter under my hand.

I received your letter of July 9th yesterday.  I went to the show last night so didn’t get a chance to write then.

I suppose you have finished threshing by now.  I can remember when we used to thresh around the ring for a month.

About the Dams place, I think you should try to sell Dorothy on it in a sly way.  Let her take a look at the house on the inside.

When I got around to shucking my corn, I only found two nubbins that I could anywhere near call corn.  The rest were just cobs with no grains at all.  Only one of the two that I did shuck looked much like an ear of corn.  The other one was just a cob with a few grains on it.  I’ve come to the conclusion that this climate is not a place for raising corn.  Consequently, I don’t think I’ll settle here.  Ha!

We had a meeting this evening on the set up of a company such as ours.  You may wonder why I haven’t made any more advancement after being in the army as long as I have.  Well, you might as well forget about it as it is a rather complicated matter to go into to explain.  I’ve worked just as hard as the next person, but the cards just didn’t come out right.  I’ll be satisfied to just get back safe and sound.  As far as expecting advancement a person is just beating his head against the wall.

Editor’s note:  Dad felt overworked and underappreciated.  The fact was, he and the others in his company worked hard maintaining machines to keep things going.  Where Dad worked was called the, “World’s Largest Service Station,” in the March 8, 1945 issue of the “India-Burma Roundup.”  The picture below shows Dad’s American and Indian co-workers.  Dad talked about how, occasionally, some foreign workers unscrupulously brought old scrapped out parts to exchange for new.

Clyde's American & Indian co-workers in India

I’m most interested in getting back home to the old way of living.  It reminds me that things are events are still going on at home.  It’s been so long  since I’ve had contact with home except through letters that I’ve almost forgotten what it’s like back there.

I don’t imagine that you get much out of my letters from over here, but there really isn’t anything interesting to talk about under circumstances.  I suppose though that a word is good news and that you look forward to my letters just like I look forward to yours.

Aug. 7, 1944

I finally received some mail today.  I got your letters of the 17th and the 24th.

Boy, you aren’t the only ones having hot weather.  It’s so hot here that it just about gets me down.  I’m as near all in tonight as I’ve been in many a day.  We do get cold water to drink now and ice cream several times a week.  It sure tastes good, too.  The first we had was such a shock that it made my mouth hurt, but has sort of gotten used to it by now.  One main trouble over here is the humidity is so high that when a person sweats there is practically no evaporation and doesn’t really cool a person.  At the present, the temperature runs between 90 and a little over a hundred.

I’m supposed to get a two-week furlough beginning with Friday and maybe I’ll get a chance to recuperate if i can find a place cool enough.  There are lots of places over here in the mountains where it’s cool but it take too long to get there for such a short time.  besides it usually takes plenty of do-re-me and I have to be conservative on that.  I have two hundred dollars worth of rupees but that won’t go so far over here.  Ever since the Americans came, the prices have been hiked up.

I spent over a dollar and a half today for a meal in a restaurant in the bazaar consisting of Beef steak (tough too–must have been one of those old water buffalo) scrambled eggs–2 glasses of lemon tea and a couple of hot cakes.  It was almost more than I could eat, but I was eating not for pleasure but for sustenance.

Maybe you wonder why I got away from camp when the eats aren’t any better.  Well, I occasionally am away from the outfit at noontime and it’s a case of necessity of eating out, or doing without till supper and that isn’t so good.

I’m afraid (as you’ve probably noticed) that I won’t be able to send much more money home while I’m over here except for the allotment that you are getting at present.  Let’s see–I have went about 440 dollars counting the allotments so far.  I thought maybe I could make another rating which would help a lot, but I’ve given up hope.  Maybe I’m lucky to have what I’ve got.  Some fellows are more fortunate and got ratings last month.  You can’t say that I didn’t work hard and try.

I suppose you remember that yesterday was an anniversary and not a pleasant one either.  I’m starting on my 4th year in the army.  It sort of scares me when I think of the time a wasting and I’m just counting time and not accomplishing anything.  That is where those other young fellows back home have it over me.  May I should hand it to them for being smart enough to stay out of this mess.  If I had it to do over again, I sure would do things different and knowing what I know now, I sure wouldn’t have any guilty conscience.

It sounds like you might have had quite a time with threshing, if the machine broke down so much.  Does Kallal have a separator now?  I have the impression that he has.

That’s OK about the Dams place.  I suppose there’ll be plenty of time for that.  I would like to have a little time to sort of get readjusted before I start right out again.  It’ll be quite different at first as I’ve been in the army so long.

Maybe Dorothy and I can get us a house to live in for a while?  I’m sure that she’ll want to sort of get out to ourselves as soon as possible.  If I don’t want to rent another place maybe I can find work somewhere and farm the home place along.  I’m not going to worry about it.  What’s bothering me more now than anything is getting home.  I don’t believe I ever was so tired of one thing as I am of army life.

I was rather surprised at Susan Carter leaving her property to L. Banks.  She must have had it in for the relatives.  That sure is a lucky break for Push and Stella.

I wondered what Ed Kallal was doing now or is planning on doing?  I was wondering what Kallals would do with their big place as they are getting too old to carry on so heavy.  That’ll make a pretty good set up if Ed builds a house right on the place and lives there with the folks.  If Ed and his woman settle down and work, they should be able to do pretty good.

Well, I believe this war will be over sometime next year and then we can all settle down to the regular way of living again.  When I get back and all the other young men, the older folks can settle back and take life easier.

I don’t think that I’ll ever be interested in any world cruises.  Ha!

Goodnight, and I hope this finds you all well.

Editor’s note:  Dad was about to leave for Calcutta on furlough.  In Chapter 12, there was a picture of elephants being used in road construction.  Elephants were used as replacements for power equipment.  Below is a picture of elephants being used to shuttle railroad cars.

elepant power

DAD’S WWII LETTERS: Chapter 14, Mother’s Day, Post War Predictions

“The soldier above all others prays for peace, for it is the soldier who must suffer and bear the deepest wounds and scars of war.”  –Douglas MacArthur–

English: General of the Army Douglas MacArthur...
English: General of the Army Douglas MacArthur smoking his corncob pipe, probably at Manila, Philippine Islands, 2 August 1945. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

April 23, 1944

I guess I got too many letters from you last week as I didn’t get any this week.

The weather has certainly been getting a lot warmer here the last few days.  I dread this season too, as it so uncomfortable.

My little two hills of corn are still growing.  It’s up to a foot high now or a little better.  I’m wondering if it’s going to have a thin stalk like it appears to be.  If it doesn’t start to spread out pretty soon it’s going to be like popcorn only taller.  If I remember correctly it is only two weeks old.

The sprouts of banana trees (young banana trees come right up out of the ground like an asparagus shoot) grows amazingly fast.  At certain stages they grow as much as two or three inches in twenty for hours.  You have to cut weeds and grass every work here in order to keep them own.  In a week’s time they get to be  foot high.  Anything you cut off doesn’t die (at the roots, I mean) but just starts to grow right back up again.

I see that they intend to start drafting the youngsters up to 26 years off the farm now.  That should catch several of the boys around home like Leach, Sarginson, Woods and so on.

Well, I’m hoping that this thing will be finished by the end of next year.  If everything goes like it looks at the present time it could be.  Of course too many factors can enter in to change the course of the war.  The sooner it ends, the better off we’ll all be, because the cost is enormous and we’re going to have to pay for it.

The future at best looks none too rosy.  the post war world is going to be one grand mix up unless the right people can hold of things and straighten them out.  That’s one big job to do.

I hardly know what’s in stock for the farmer.  He has boosted production for the war but as soon as peace comes there’ll be no need for such a large amount of farm products as these war-torn countries will start raising their own food as quickly as possible.  The only thing that’ll save the farm prices will be government control of production.  That’ll mean a cut in production.

Editor’s note:  Dad’s mention of farm overproduction leading to post-war governmental involvement was on target.  The Department of Agriculture still buys surplus commodities.  Farmers are sometimes paid not to plant certain crops to stabilize prices.

That’ll help some farmers and others that have had to already cut down due to shortage of labor, will have to cut down still further.  To me it looks like about all a person can expect to make off the farm will be a living and that’s all.

He sure won’t be able to buy more land and figure on the land paying for itself.  Unless something is done about it, there is going to ba a shift of the moneyed city man to the farm and common farmer with small capital will have to move into the city to find employment or work for the “gentleman” farmer.  The farmer that owns his own land and has it debt free may be able to slide by all right.  He’ll still have to compete with “big time farming.”

I’m just wondering if I’m going to get the chance to get situated before the break comes.  It’ll take a couple of years after the war probably for food production to catch up to normal, but after that it means either low prices or less production.

I think the farm will be the most secure place to be, providing he has the right set up.  I don’t think anybody is gong to make very much money.  The fellow that can make his money now and invests it properly is the one that’s going to be on top.

Taxes are going to be enormous.  That’s what is going to hit the service man so hard when he comes back into civilian life and tries to go into business.  Very few are going to have the money to pay cash for everything.  The majority will have to depend on finding jobs.  That’s a big job for somebody to figure out.

Well, I suppose you both are pretty busy now with spring work.  Hope you are well.

Wish I could see your chicks.  I won’t know the place around there when I see it again with the garden changes around and converted to a chicken yard.

Write as often as you can.

April 24, 1944

I received your V-mail today and was glad to hear you got the box.  I was a little worried about it as I wasn’t able to get it insured and I’d heard that some of that stuff had been lost.

I hope it arrived intact and that you were able to get it divided up OK.

I guess the weather by now has warmed up enough now so that your chicks are out of danger of getting chilled.  What I would like to know is why are you raising so many chickens if they don’t pay?  I’d thing you could find plenty else to do.  As far as those powdered eggs are concerned, I’d just as soon they keep them.

Editor’s note:  I’ve had the displeasure of being served powdered eggs and completely agree.  There aren’t enough onions or ketchup to disguise the dreadful flavor.

I wrote you a regular letter yesterday and am just writing this in response to your V-mail.

April 26, 1944

Mother’s Day Greetings

So many things I’d like to say
To gladden and brighten your day
All your dear heart can hold
As the days and the years unfold
And many joys along life’s way
To you, Dear mom,
On Mother’s Day.

April 30, 1944

This has been my day off again and I started the morning off by washing out my dirty socks and handkerchiefs.  Then I cleaned out some jungle behind the tent.  Then I shaved and tidied up the tent a bit.

This afternoon I wrote a letter and reread some of my old ones.  This afternoon we got paid once again.  Pay doesn’t mean much anymore except that it means a few more rupees to the collection.  PX day is the most important now as that is when the beer flows freely, but not for long as it is soon drunk up.

I received your letter, Dad of the second of March.  It seems that the mail gets sort of mixed up as I’ve gotten considerable later than that.

I was glad to hear about the livestock and how things are going around the place. If the weather permits, you’ll be thinking of planting corn as tomorrow is the first of May.

Clyde on leave in Chesterfield (2)Dad on leave at the home place

I probably won’t know the home place the next time I see it as there have been so many changes made.

Yes, I imagine that it is hard to get repairs for any kind of equipment anymore.  I’ve read a few articles on how Washington has messed things up by making it almost impossible for a farmer to get machinery.

Well, I don’t know much to say.  The weather is about the same, only more so.

May 9, 1944

I received your letters of April 16th.  I didn’t write a letter yesterday as I figured I would be getting one from you and then I would answer.

You seem to be having a late spring again this year.

I’ll bet it’s sure pretty around there with the fruit trees in bloom.  Are the cherry trees still there?  I remember one year when we had all kinds of cherries I’ll bet you still have some cans of them in the cellar.

The strawberries haven’t hit recently have they?  I could sure go for some strawberry shortcake or cobbler.  Occasionally we get some strawberry jam to put on our bread.  Most time it is marmalade or apple butter.  I don’t car for the marmalade at all anymore.

I was sort of commenting on the prospects in Alaska after the war.  I don’t suppose that it’s very likely that I’ll wind up there as I’m getting a little too old to do something like that.  I do think that it will offer good opportunity for a young man starting out.

I hope to settle down on the farm if I don’t have to stay in the army too much longer.  That is something a person should start at before he gets too old to come out.  It takes quite a while at that for a person to realize anything.  I do think a farm is a good place to raise kids.  I hope that I can farm on Uncle George’s place for a few years. l I wish it were possible that I could buy the place, but that’s out of the question now.

How’s Uncle Pete coming with his place?  I guess he’s having a time of it since he has his sick spells.  Do you still have in mind taking over the place sometime?  That would be nice if we could combine the two places.  I’ve often thought how nice it wold be to combine the two places and then if a person could get hold of the old Wooley place cheap enough when the place sells (some day it will) it would make a nice sized place to make room for a herd of cattle and still have plenty of cultivable land.  This is only a dream but it sounds good.  I always wanted to farm a place that had plenty of pasture land suitably located and adaptable to grazing with enough cultivable land.

I always thought it would be nice to have a herd of cattle growing up on a place without having to depend too much on buying stock cattle at the yards.  If a person could build himself a herd to raise his own calves and then follow them through until they were finished for market.  Of course it would take several years, lots of capital and patience to build up something like that.  Maybe someday I can do that or maybe it’s just an idle daydream.  It all depends on how everything worked out in the next few years.

I’m going to have to sort of keep my nose to the grindstone trying to get set up.  I’ll have to buy quite a bit of machinery at the start.  I want to get by on as little as possible at the start but then again it takes good equipment to do a good job of farming.  Nowadays it takes more and more expensive equipment to compete than it did when you started out.  Dorothy and I have (or should have by then) enough put away in a special account to set up our home.  She’s saving the allotment from me and also what she can from her job.  We should be able to furnish our home very nicely.  Naturally she wants it fixed pretty nice and I want her to have it that way as she is helping save for that purpose.  I’m satisfied on that angle.

The most “scratching” is going to come on the business end.  If we have a few good years at the start we’ll come out OK.

I’m glad to hear that you are getting your debts whittled down.  I would say that now is the time to do so.  Then when I get back, you two can sort of settle back and take things easier without too many worries.  I’ll need lots of advice on running the farm as it’s been so long seems like since I’ve been off.  I feel confidant that Dorothy and I can make a go of it.  She seems perfectly willing to give it a try.  I think she’ll be all right if someone doesn’t discourage her.  I’ve noticed that if a person says the wrong thing, that she gets discouraged, so I know I’ll have to be careful bawling her out.  I’ll have to use discretion and not do that.

Dad, I’m glad to hear that the cattle on the home place did so well.  You should realize a little clear money on them.

It the weather clears soon enough you may stand a good chance of having a good corn crop this year as you haven’t had one lately.

My two little hills of corn are coming along fine.  It has quit growing any taller at the present and the stalk is getting heavier.  So maybe it’ll grow to normal size after all.  It sure grew in a hurry at the start.  I suppose that was due to the warmer climate.  I never did plant anymore as there really isn’t a suitable place without grubbing out stumps, etc.  I’m anxious to see how this turns out.  Maybe if we can stay in this location long enough I’ll have some roasting ears Illinois style?

We’ve been getting a vitamin tablet a day here lately and I seem to feel better and have a better appetite.

Well, if this rotation policy works out maybe I’ll be seeing you about the first part of next year.  I sure hope the situation both in Europe and over here keeps on the up grade and maybe the future will be much brighter by then.

I’ll have to close for this time.  Hope you are well.  Keep writing.

May 14, 1944

Here it is Mother’s Day again and it’s the second one I’ve spent in India.  I hope I can spend the next one at home.  It was a much prettier day last year that it is this.  I sent some money to Dorothy to buy some flowers for our mothers.

I washed out some socks and handkerchiefs this morning, but they won’t dry any today.  I went out and pulled some grass away from my two hills of corn while ago.  It’s up to pocket high (not quite waist-high yet).

I cut out some more weeds as they deep growing up.  The grass is taking over now where the weeds are kept down and there is nothing else to interfere. It is a crab grass just like you find at home during the wet season.  If grows fast at all the joints.  I should have a good milk goat.  There’s plenty of grazing for one and I cold have fresh milk.  I suppose the main trouble would be trying to find one that was free of disease.  I sure would like to have some good cold milk to drink and some fresh butter.

I suppose your chicks are getting at the size now where they are pretty lively and eat a lot.  Do you have any goslings or ducklings?  Young fowl should do good over here as there are lots of insects for them to catch.  There are lots of wild animals, too, to catch the fowl.  Something finally killed our duck mascot.  He was an old fellow anyway and lived his time I guess.  He didn’t seem to get around much.

monitor lizardMonitor lizard, native to India

I saw the largest lizard over here a while back that I ever saw or expect to see.  It was actually, without exaggeration, four feet long and its body at the largest part was big around as my leg below the knee.  When he first saw us (some of my tent mates) he didn’t waste time in getting away.  He sounded like a horse running through the brush.  Before he knew we were around, he stayed still in our spot for several minutes so we got a good look at him.  I wouldn’t have believed that they grew that large if I hadn’t seen it myself.  It reminded of those prehistoric monsters that you read about.

Editor’s note:  Was it a coincidence–the presence of a large lizard and one missing duck?

So Bob Duckels made captain.  I didn’t even know he had gone to O. C. S.  I guess his folks are right proud of him now.  Whatever happened to Clarence?  Is he still around Chesterfield?

Sometimes I wonder just how much longer this war is going to last.  Sometimes I get so discouraged that it all seems hopeless.  I sometimes wonder if I’ll be satisfied anywhere after I get out of the army.  I certainly am not satisfied in the army.  I never was and don’t suppose that I ever will be. All I can do is hope that is sometimes domes to an end.  I’ve done that so much that I get tired of it.  I suppose a person can endure it though.  I guess it is the monotony that makes it so hard.  I only wish I could spend a week or so on the farm during spring or early summer.  I guess I’m a little homesick.

Well I guess I’ll close for this time.

May 24, 1944

After about a week and a half of doing without mail I finally got a flock of it.  Right now I’m about ten letters behind on my writing.

There is no need for you to worry about me over here.  I’m in no more danger than if I were in the States.  There are as many people killed accidentally back there every year as there are killed in the war.  The situation is well in had over here now so there’s no need for worry.

Chances are fairly good that I may be getting home sometime the fore part of nest year.  Of course that isn’t definite yet.

While school was going on, Dorothy didn’t have much spare time.  She kept telling me how busy she was and she would say that she was taking time out to write me a letter before going to bed and it would be near midnight then.  School activities and her course at Blackburn [College] with the household duties kept her pretty well occupied.

No, so far I haven’t heard from Chas. Sanders.  I heard from Harvey Clark once and Lee Clark [two brothers-in-law] a couple of times.  Aunt Mary still writes.  She sent me an Easter card.  I got it a couple of days ago.

How do you like the Dawson’s for neighbors?

It looks like Arthur Hall got his new wife in time to take care of him.  That is some pair.  I can’t hardly feature it.

I’m not worrying too much.  When a person gets a family of his own he has to do a little worrying to figure how to make ends meet.  A person has to have a few worries or he isn’t happy.  A person that has no responsibilities is the one most likely to get into devilment.

I received the radish seeds OK.  I’ll have to clear off a place to plant them.  They should grow all right once I get them in the ground.  The corn is up waist-high but has sort of a yellow cast.  I guess there’s too much moisture for it over here.

It seems funny to think of Cora Francis and Charles Preston Clements [cousins] going to high school.  It seems only yesterday when they were just little tykes.

Uncle Pres sure has had quite a time getting settled.  It looks like I’m going to be just like him as I’m getting such a late start in life.

flood cleanup 1944Cleanup after Mississippi River flooding Spring ’44, Cape Girardeau, MO

It looks like the farmers are going to be way behind in getting their crops in again this year because of the wet weather.  It’s funny how it’s wet every year like that.  I suppose though, it is better to have too much rain than not enough, as you always have something when it’s wet, but when it’s too dry everything dries up.  I read where the old Mississippi went on a rampage.  I guess Floyd was flooded out in the bottom again.  It’s lucky he didn’t have corn in.

Editor’s note:  Because of Mighty Mississippi spring rampages, the Pick-Sloan Flood Control Act of 1944 was passed.  A number of dams and levees were constructed on the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers.  The legislation was named for Brigadier General Lewis A. Pick of the Army Corps of Engineers.  He was also in command of Ledo road construction under Gen. Stilwell.  As Stilwell and his troops drove the Japanese out, road construction followed closely behind.  The new road was referred to, as “Pick’s Pike.”

Well, I’m getting these letters answered gradually.  I’m now answering one of yours which was written May 3rd.

I’ll bet it is pretty around there now.  this time of the year when nature took on a new always was pleasant.  Over here the vegetation is too much the same the year around.  Things do grow more now than they do during the cooler season, but they are always green.  You speak of cherry trees blooming.  Maybe there’ll be cherries this year.

Speaking of garden I could sure go for a big bowl of lettuce the way you used to fix it.  We had some asparagus for chow the other day and I sure gobbled it up.  I didn’t know that I did like it so well.  I thin the main reason was that it was something green.  I find that onions make a good appetizer, bu the only drawback is that they sometimes disagree with me afterwards.  So far we’ve never had any green onions.  They are too hard to handle for the army.  There wouldn’t be much greenness left in them by the time they reached us.

Editor’s note:  Dad’s favorite [and mine too] was wilted fresh garden leaf lettuce with hot sweet and sour hot vinagrette dressing poured over it.  Of course it wasn’t low-calorie–made with bacon grease.

I suppose George and Delbert Duckels are still plugging along together.

So Uncle George is going to sell the place.  That is sort of disappointing to me although I sort of halfway expected that to happen some day.  I was hoping that I could farm it for a couple of years first.  It’s good land and a person could make money there.  Whoever gets it will have a nice place.  Of course it’ll take some fixing up, but not too much.

If I had the money, I sure would have bought the place.  I suppose there are places better though.  It’s probably mostly sentimental because it was the first place that I really started to take an interest in farming.  I suppose that if Bill Rigsbey should get the place, he would put Floyd there.

The Frank Dams place would be all right to start with I guess, although the improvements aren’t so much.  There’s no silo on the place and only one small barn.  The land isn’t too good.  How many acres are there?  What kind of rent would they want?  It would be hard to know what to do about it, as it’s so indefinite when I’ll be able to start farming.  They’ll probably want someone in the house as soon as possible.

If you want me to farm the home place, I’ll have to have a place close enough where I can handle them both.  I’ll have to more or less leave it up to you to keep on the lookout for an opening.

Of course if there is no other alternative, I’ll have to find a job somewhere for a while until you give up the place at home and move off and I have enough capital to help myself and get by on that much land.  I would rather start right out farming at first.

If I should get back to the States by the time things are pretty settled in Europe, I might stand a chance of getting out of the army to farm.

Well,I’d better bring this letter to a close.  I’ve sort of went on a writing binge.  I had four of your letters to answer and I had the time and everything was quiet so that I could concentrate.  Usually when I try to write there just doesn’t seem to ba anything to write about.

For goodness sakes don’t work too hard.  Like is too short to overdo it.

5-28-44:  My corn is shoulder-high now and beginning to tassel.  The stalk is very small.  I don’t believe that it’s going to amount to anything.  The rumor is out that we are going to get compulsory furloughs.  We’ve been told to conserve our money.